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The annual PPI is a measure of the improvement that a group makes toward its own targets over a two-year period on up to seven different indicators. Groups are eligible for an annual PPI if a sufficient number of students were assessed (20 for schools and subgroups) in English language arts and mathematics in the most recent year and one of the two prior years. A group is awarded 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 points based on the amount of improvement it makes from one year to the next:
A group can earn extra credit for: reducing the percentage of students scoring Warning/Failing and/or by increasing the percentage of students scoring Advanced by 10% or more on ELA, mathematics, or science tests; reengaging 2 or more dropouts; and/or demonstrating high growth in English language proficiency. An additional 25 points for meeting each of these goals is added to the total number of points awarded.
Improved Below Target
The annual PPI is calculated by dividing the total number of points awarded by the number of indicators (up to seven). The cumulative PPI is the average of a group's annual PPIs over the most recent four year period, weighting later years the most (1-2-3-4). A group is assigned a cumulative PPI if it has three annual PPIs. While a group's annual PPI can exceed 100 points, the cumulative PPI is always reported on a 100-point scale. For a group to be considered to be making progress toward narrowing proficiency gaps, its cumulative PPI must be 75 or higher.
In 2015 Massachusetts began reporting on the "economically disadvantaged" subgroup, which comprises students who are eligible for state support programs, and stopped reporting on the low income subgroup, membership of which was based on family applications for free/reduced price lunch. In accordance with this transition, no 2015 annual PPI was calculated for the economically disadvantaged subgroup and a hold harmless provision was applied to the calculation of the 2015 annual PPI for the high needs subgroup. The high needs group's 2015 annual PPI was compared to its 2014 annual PPI, and the higher of the two annual PPIs was assigned and used in the 2015 cumulative PPI calculation. A 2015 annual PPI with an asterisk (*) on this page signals that the 2014 annual PPI was higher than the 2015 annual PPI, and was used for both 2014 and 2015 in the cumulative PPI calculation.