2011 Glossary of Accountability Reporting Terms

2010 CPI (Baseline) Represents the performance, as measured in terms of the Composite Performance Index, of students in a given group tested in grades 3-8 and 10 in 2010, the baseline against which the 2011 CPI is measured.
2011 CPI Represents the performance, as measured in terms of the Composite Performance Index, of students in a given group tested in grades 3-8 and 10 in 2011. CPIs are displayed separately for English language arts (ELA) and for mathematics.
Accountability and Assistance Level This designation, from Level 1 to Level 5, indicates a school's or district's placement on the Framework for Accountability and Assistance, the five-level system for district and school accountability and assistance. For more information on the framework and the accountability and assistance activities connected with each level, see: http://www.doe.mass.edu/sda/framework/default.html. Accountability and Assistance Levels are displayed on district and school accountability reports beginning in September. (See Download PDF Document  Download MS WORD Document 2011-12 School and District Accountability and Assistance Levels and Required Actions.)
Adequate Yearly Progress History As shown on district and school accountability reports, a snapshot of the years between 2004 and 2011. A finding of "Yes" or "No" in a given year tells if the school or district made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that year. Schools and districts that do not make AYP for two or more consecutive years in the aggregate or for a student group in English language arts (ELA) or mathematics must follow a course of action to improve school performance. A school or district's "Accountability Status" defines that course of action. (See NCLB Accountability Status)
Aggregate AYP determinations are issued annually based on the performance of all students in the school or district (the "aggregate") and for individual student groups ("subgroups"). Students are included in the aggregate and in each student group to which they belong.
Attendance As shown on district and school accountability reports, the additional AYP indicator for elementary and middle schools. Attendance rates are calculated by dividing the total number of days all students in a particular group attended school by the total number of days all students were enrolled. The attendance rate required to make AYP in 2011 is 92%, or improvement of at least 1 percentage point from 2010.
AYP (Adequate Yearly Progress) The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires all schools and districts to meet or exceed specific student performance standards in English language arts (ELA) and mathematics by the year 2014. AYP determinations are issued annually based on the performance of all students (the "aggregate") and for individual student groups ("subgroups") to gauge the interim progress toward the attainment of those goals.

To make AYP in 2011, districts and schools must meet a student participation requirement, an additional attendance or graduation requirement, and either the State's 2011 performance target for that subject or the district, school or group's own 2011 improvement target.

A group may also make AYP by reducing the percentage of non-proficient students by 10% from 2010 to 2011 under NCLB's Safe Harbor provision. (See SH (Safe Harbor))

Commended For Accountability reports for some schools display a "Commended For" label followed by a note indicating the reason(s) why the school is being commended: narrowing proficiency gaps; high growth; and/or exiting NCLB Accountability Status from the previous year. "Commended For" labels are displayed on school accountability reports beginning in September.
CPI (Composite Performance Index) A 100-point index that assigns 100, 75, 50, 25, or 0 points to each student participating in MCAS and MCAS-Alternate Assessment tests based on their performance. The total points assigned to each student are added together and the sum is divided by the total number of students assessed. The result is a number between 0 and 100, which constitutes a district, school or group's CPI for that subject and student group. The CPI is a measure of the extent to which students are progressing toward proficiency (a CPI of 100) in ELA and mathematics. CPIs are generated separately for ELA and mathematics, and at all levels - state, district, school, and student group.
Data Under Review Message displayed when accountability data are under review by the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE).
Detailed Data To enhance the user-friendliness of accountability reports, AYP data are published in two layers- summary and detail. The summary layer displays overall findings. The detail layer displays more discrete data, including information about the number of students included in AYP determinations for each group and baseline and gain target data.
EB (Error Band) As shown on data reports created by ESE, the improvement that a district, school, or group has to make from one year to another, is expressed as a target range. (See On Target Range) This range includes an "error band" that surrounds the target number. Schools, districts, and groups have the opportunity to meet their improvement targets even if their CPI falls below the target number. Error bands vary between plus or minus 1.0 CPI points and plus or minus 4.5 CPI points, depending on the size of the group measured and whether that group is at the school or district level. Error bands are applied to a group's gain target, not its CPI.
Gain Target As shown on data reports created by ESE, the amount of improvement - as measured in CPI points - a school, district, or student subgroup is expected to make from 2010 to 2011. Gain targets are calculated by subtracting the baseline CPI from 100 (the year 2014 performance target for all Massachusetts schools and districts), and dividing the difference by the number of remaining years, including the current year, until the year 2014. For 2011, that number is 4. Gain targets are different for each school, district, and student group, based on their performance in 2010 and the amount of gain needed between 2010 and 2011 to stay on track to 100% proficiency by the 2013-2014 school year.
Grade Spans District-level AYP determinations are issued separately for three grade spans - grades 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 - for students in the aggregate and for individual student groups in ELA and mathematics. District accountability status determinations are driven by these grade-span AYP determinations. (See NCLB Accountability Status)
Graduation Rate In 2011, Massachusetts public high schools and districts at the grade 9-12 grade span have to meet at least one of the following criteria: (1) A four-year graduation rate of 75 percent applied to the 2010 graduation cohort, or (2) A two percentage point increase in the four-year graduation rate from the 2009 cohort to 2010 cohort; or (3) A five-year graduation rate of 80 percent applied to the 2009 graduation cohort.
Improvement Rating Descriptive term corresponding to the amount of aggregate CPI gain a school or district achieved in one year, from 2010 to 2011. The improvement that a school or district is expected to make from one year to the next is expressed not as a single numeric target, but as a target range, also called the "on target range." The size of the target range varies depending on the size and score distribution of the particular group being measured. (The standard target range is plus or minus 2.5 CPI points, but may be as large as plus or minus 4.5 CPI points for groups smaller than 100.) The five improvement rating categories are: Above Target (improved above target range), On Target (improved within target range), Improved Below Target (improved above the baseline but below the target range), No Change (gain was equivalent to baseline plus or minus the target range), and Declined (gain was below baseline and below the target range). (See EB (Error Band))
Met Target (Improvement) An indication of whether a district, school, or student group made AYP in 2011 by improving its CPI from 2010 to 2011 within or above its On Target Range. A district, school or group's improvement target is calculated by adding its gain target to its 2010 CPI (Baseline). (See Gain Target)
Met Target (Performance) An indication of whether a district, school, or student group made AYP in 2011 by meeting or exceeding the 2011 state performance target. The 2011 state performance target for ELA is a CPI of 95.1 points; for mathematics, 92.2.
N (Performance) As shown on district and school accountability reports, the number of students tested in 2011 whose assessment results are included in the 2011 CPI calculation. At the school level, this number includes only those students enrolled in the school on or before October 1, 2010 who participated in testing. The results of first-year limited English proficient (LEP) students are also excluded.

AYP determinations are made for student populations in the aggregate whenever the number of students assessed is 20 or greater in each year for which performance data is being analyzed.

AYP determinations are made for student groups if they include (1) 40 students or greater assessed in each year for which performance data is being analyzed, AND (2) the number of group members was at least 5% of students whose assessment results are included in the school's or district's aggregate AYP calculation, OR (3) the number of group members was 200 or more.

Districts, schools, and student groups that do not meet ESE's minimum group size requirements for 2011 do not receive an AYP determination.

NCLB Accountability Status The category to which a school is assigned, based on AYP determinations over multiple years, to define the required course of school, district and/or state action that must be taken to improve student performance. Accountability status categories include No Status, Improvement, Corrective Action, and Restructuring.

A district or school is placed in an accountability status on the basis of the performance and improvement profile of students in the aggregate or of one or more student groups over two or more years in ELA and/or mathematics.

Schools that make AYP in a subject for all student groups for two or more consecutive years are assigned to the positive No Status category. (See Download PDF Document  Download MS WORD Document 2011-12 School and District Accountability and Assistance Levels and Required Actions.)

NCLB School Choice Required Under NCLB, when a school receiving federal Title I funds is identified for improvement, corrective action or restructuring, the district is required to offer all students enrolled in the school the option to transfer to another public school served by the district that has not been identified for school improvement, if such an option is available. As shown on school accountability reports, the label "Yes" is displayed for Title I schools that must provide NCLB School Choice. (More information about NCLB School Choice)
No AYP Data Available Districts or schools that do not meet ESE's minimum group size in 2011 do not receive an AYP determination. In this case, a message will be displayed that no AYP data are available for the school or district. (See N (Performance))
On Target Range As shown on data reports provided to schools and districts, the range of CPI values required for a group to be assigned an improvement rating of On Target, taking into consideration the error band surrounding each group's gain target. The smaller number represents the gain target minus the error band, while the larger number represents the gain target plus the error band. If the CPI of a district, school, or student group falls within the On Target Range, the group is considered to be On Target.
Participation Indicates the number of students who participated in MCAS/MCAS-Alt tests (# assessed) divided by the number of students enrolled (# enrolled) on the date MCAS tests are administered, including students with limited English proficiency enrolled in U.S. schools for the first time. As a matter of federal law, the minimum participation rate required to make AYP is 95%.
SH (Safe Harbor) A group can make AYP by reducing the percentage of non-proficient students by 10% from 2010 to 2011 (NCLB's safe harbor provision).When students in the aggregate or any student group meet the participation requirement, but fail to meet the state performance target and its own gain target but the percentage not scoring in the proficient range decreased by 10% or more from one year to the next, the group is considered to have met its improvement target on the basis of safe harbor. As shown on school and district accountability reports, the abbreviation "SH" is appended to a group's AYP finding for improvement (i.e., "Yes/SH").
Subgroup AYP determinations are issued yearly based on the performance of all students in the school or district (the "aggregate") and for individual student groups ("subgroups"). Students are included in the aggregate and in each student group to which they belong.

In accordance with NCLB, ESE issues AYP determinations for the following student groups: students with disabilities, students with limited English proficiency, economically disadvantaged students, and racial and ethnic groups.

Summary Data To enhance the user-friendliness of accountability reports, AYP data are published in two layers- summary and detail. The summary layer displays overall findings. The detail layer displays more discrete data, including information about the number of students included in AYP determinations for each group and baseline and gain target data.
Supplemental Educational Services Required Students from low-income families attending Title I schools in their second year of school improvement (i.e., have not made AYP for three or more years), in corrective action, or in restructuring status are eligible to receive additional, free, academic instruction - or tutoring - called Supplemental Educational Services (SES).

As shown on school accountability reports, the label "Yes" is displayed for Title I schools that must offer SES. (More information about SES)

Title I Status Indication of whether a school or district receives federal Title I funds in 2011-2012, based on the most recent data collected by ESE. Title I status for schools and districts may change between August and September each year. Title I schools and districts that do not make AYP for two or more consecutive years have certain responsibilities under NCLB. (See Download PDF Document  Download MS WORD Document 2011-12 School and District Accountability and Assistance Levels and Required Actions.)